More Than Coding

Because machines still need humans

What Your Resume Says About Your Programming Skills

If you’re looking to get a new programming job, there is a very important fact to know about hiring managers. Since they are very busy and receive lots of resumes for open positions, they will build a mental profile of a candidate’s skills by scanning their resume in just a few seconds. Much like when you meet someone in person, first impressions count.

Hiring managers hone their speedy scanning skills through years of experience on the job. Knowing how they interpret your resume’s content is often the difference between moving to that crucial phone screen stage and being ignored. Here are a few hints about what messages your resume is sending to potential new employers about your programming skills.

Typos

If you haven’t bothered to run an automated spellchecker over your resume, you won’t be expected to take care when writing code on a daily basis. Typos on a resume are typically viewed as a sign of laziness and disinterest, and can easily lead to them being dropped right into the employer’s trashcan.

Experienced technical hiring managers will quickly evaluate the precision with which a programmer uses language in their resume, and they will extend that impression to the candidate’s programming skills. When the hiring manager sees your typos, they have unpleasant visions of the many bugs you would create in their applications.

Excessive Length

Engineering candidates frequently send resumes that are more than 10 pages long, describing in complete and exhaustive detail every single project the candidate ever worked on. There will be a careful mention of the exact compiler version used on a 3-month contract for IBM back in 1994, along with cryptic company-specific project names like “EDT/BTS” that would only make sense to a handful of people on the planet.

The immediate thought that jumps to mind for the hiring manager upon receiving such tomes? That the candidate probably never revisits existing code to refactor it. The idea of editing a complex routine to break it up into simpler constituent parts for better maintainability and readability is apparently not something that they naturally want to do. After all, they’ve been adding to their resume’s content for years without revisiting it, so why would anyone expect them to do the same with their code? Also, excessive length can also imply that the candidate has a problem prioritizing. In today’s world, where engineers frequently have to juggle numerous projects, prioritization skills are necessary.

Acronym Overload

Technical acronyms are understandably commonplace in software engineering. However, when a quick visual scan of a resume makes a manager feel like they are swimming in alphabet soup, they often build an image of the candidate as being someone who only knows tools and frameworks and has little ability to design software at an architectural level. On the other hand, if the position being filled needs someone who can quickly create “mash-up” prototypes using a diverse set of existing frameworks and tools, having an acronym-heavy resume might be exactly what the employer is looking for.

Lack of Creativity

If an employer were looking for an engineer to build a sexy new web UI, a boring, unimaginative resume created using a Microsoft Word template would be the last thing they’d want to see. Using a dull, expected resume format usually indicates a lack of visual creativity and curiosity, and the employer will often question the candidate’s ability to build aesthetically pleasing web interfaces.

Granted, plenty of engineers whose expertise is in building services that don’t contain graphical interfaces (such as server-side libraries or SDKs) have resumes that don’t push any creative boundaries, and could easily make fine candidates for positions responsible for working in those kinds of areas. However, a decent eye for design is becoming increasingly important for many engineering positions.

Complex Language

Resumes filled with pompous, overly complex language can be a sign of a programmer who prefers to look smart rather than communicate effectively. While this kind of candidate may have written some very dense code that works, nobody on their team probably understands it, and everyone is afraid to touch it in case they break it.

Programmers who have recently left a long stint in academia to enter private industry often produce resumes full of lofty language. In those cases, it’s probably a symptom of them having to write peer-reviewed papers for years rather than a desire of theirs to show off how many grandiose words they know. Still, an overly verbose, high-register writing style can be a red flag that the candidate may not naturally write code that is simple for others to understand.

Job Jumping

Candidates who have a history of jumping from position to position every year ring the alarm bells for many employers – they are the last people a company would expect to think about the readability and maintainability of their code. They will be considered as the kind of engineer that gets excited about working on new challenges but gets easily bored when asked to work on fixing bugs in existing features. Engineers quickly develop expertise in niche areas in any company, so having people leave after a short initial investment is not only costly for the employer, but can be detrimental to overall team morale.

A job jumper might be wonderful for a position that needs someone to build features quickly with the intention of handing their work off to a dedicated maintenance team, or as someone who can migrate from project to project, but they would probably need to be paired with others to oversee their work and ensure that their code is good enough to be allowed to go into production for years into the future. After all, the chances that they’ll still be in the same company when changes need to be made to their work are pretty slim.

What You Can Do

Your resume is a window into your programming skills and your personality. Make a special effort to overhaul yours to be viewed as a more desirable candidate to potential employers. For example, if you’re worried about your writing skills, have a professional proofreader check your resume for typos or stylistic mistakes.

If you are friends with a technical hiring manager, ask if they’ll help you by having them spend just a couple of minutes scanning your resume and then telling you what kind of programmer you appear to be, and in what kind of roles they believe you would fit. You might be surprised at the feedback, but at least you’ll be able to take some action to change how you appear to potential employers in order to make sure you increase your chances of not only getting a job, but of earning a position that is truly a great fit.

Understanding Software Engineering Job Titles

The world of professional software engineering is full of titles and grades. Employers use job titles as a means to help them build new teams with the right mix of talent, attract the right caliber of candidates when hiring, create attractive career paths and assist with compensation planning. However, many companies assign titles differently, making their systems difficult to understand, especially for younger engineers.

Sometimes employers will be very precise and define an engineering career track that might look like this:

Title

Experience Required

Responsibility

Sphere of Influence

Associate Engineer / Junior Engineer / Intern 0 years Bug fixes, minor feature Self
Software Engineer 1-4 years Features Team
Senior Engineer 4-8 years Modules Development Group
Principal Engineer 8-12 years Product, Architecture Company
Fellow 12+ years Products, Technical Strategy Industry

This model is most often used by companies with large and well-established engineering teams.

Other employers use grades that sound more like movie sequels than job titles:

  • Software Engineer I
  • Software Engineer II
  • Software Engineer III
  • Software Engineer IV
  • Software Engineer V

It probably won’t come as a surprise that the above bureaucratic-sounding titles are very similar to the definitions used by the US Department of Labor.

While it’s less common, some companies even drop the concept of job title progression completely and have everyone be just a plain old “Software Engineer,” regardless of their experience or talent. This can work wonders by preventing the formation of ivory towers and by empowering younger engineers to participate at the same level as their older peers. However it can be more difficult to implement because it goes against most people’s traditional (or even cultural) expectations, and it can cause unease for those engineers who strongly equate title changes with career advancement.

Given that there’s no standard structure for engineer progression, a Principal Engineer moving to a new company could be offered the less impressive-sounding title of Software Engineer, even though they may be taking on far more responsibility and increasing their sphere of influence.

Mature engineers tend to focus more on the opportunities and challenges available in a new position than they do about what they’ll be putting on their LinkedIn Profile. They know that any technical hiring manager worth their salt understands that every company uses different scales, and those managers won’t blindly assume that the candidate had been demoted mid-career if they see a title progression that looks somewhat backwards. They correctly focus on the engineer themselves and their innate talents, not on the details of their old business cards.

Should you worry about changing your title when making a move from one company to the next? No, you shouldn’t. At the end of the day, hiring managers for engineering positions are far more concerned about your technical chops than your title. Understanding your responsibilities and sphere of influence will be things that come out in the job interview. So, if you’re on the hunt for a new position, look for companies with a solid business model with a healthy and functioning team that will be taking on interesting challenges. Put minimal emphasis on the title you’ll bear once you work there, and focus more on how the position will allow you to develop your skills and knowledge. Those are the most valuable assets prized by any engineer, and by the managers who hire them.

UX, Then Architecture, Then Tools

Imagine you are building your dream house. Would you trust a general contractor who talks like this?

First, we’re going to pick out the material for the kitchen counter and the glass for the windows. Let’s just guess the amounts of each to buy for now.

Then we’ve got to buy some of that new concrete everyone’s been talking about. I suppose a truckload will do it for now, but we could always order more later. I just can’t wait to try it out!

After putting the beams in place we should decide how many floors the house should have. And right at the end we should decide what style the house will be. Sometime before you move in we should get planning permission, and I’ll probably contact an architect for some drawings after you’ve settled in.

It sounds ludicrous because there’s a well-established method for building houses, and it’s based on common sense. You start with a vision, get a set of plans, pour a foundation, build the framework, fill in the internal stuff, and finally finish all the little details.

Putting any step out of order would cause complete chaos. Finishing the walls before the electrical would mean you’d have to punch holes in all your walls in order to run wires around the house. Cleaning it before it is completely finished would be a wasted effort given the amount of dust builders cause while they work.

However many coders build their systems backwards. They become enamored with the latest whizz-bang framework or charmed by the reportedly speedy performance of the newest database. And they lead their thinking with those choices as they build new features, whether those technologies are appropriate or not.

More importantly, using a technology-first design typically means that the user experience (UX) will be left until last. And if you put your users last in your order of priorities, it will unfortunately be very evident in your system’s lack of usability.

UX First

The first order of business in application design is deciding what its users will experience. This should be a high-level vision sketched out on paper or in simple digital mockups, and it should express the flow of the system from the user’s perspective.

It doesn’t matter if you’re building a web application for senior citizens or a system-level tool for serious computing nerds. The UX must be designed first.

Type of System

Your First Thought Should NOT Be…

Your First Thought SHOULD Be…

Online music player “I’m going to design the database schema!” “Let’s design the UX”
Social media plugin “Let me start hacking around with some online social media APIs!” “Let’s design the UX”
Multiplayer Game “SuperFastDB is apparently really scalable, I’ll start testing it today!” “Let’s design the UX”
Virus Checker “I’ve been dying to write a new virus scanning algorithm, so I’m jumping right into that!” “Let’s design the UX”
GPS Device “I’m going to research the latest in OLED technology right away!” “Let’s design the UX”

Then Comes The Architecture

Once the UX has been designed and the vision of the system has been defined, an architecture should be laid out to make sure that the code that eventually gets written will actually meet the needs of the users. The choices made in the UX design radically shape and inform a system’s architecture.

A good UX design will cater for less obvious things that might be part of the overall user experience. A well-written specification might include requirements such as “the overall load time for page loads must be less than 200 msec” because the designers know the consequences of slow page load speeds. It might also call for close-to-zero downtime, so the architecture might end up requiring a multi-datacenter deployment.

Last But Not Least, The Tools

Now it’s finally playtime! Once the UX has been defined and the architecture has been laid out, the process of picking the right technologies, frameworks and libraries can begin. The crucial point is that now the tools are being chosen with the UX and architecture in mind, so any tool that doesn’t fulfill the needs of either can be quickly disregarded.

This Does Not Mean “Waterfall”

If you think that this design sequence requires an outdated Waterfall-like approach to accommodate it, think again! This is completely appropriate for Agile development. The implementation of a whole new product, an epic or even a single user story should follow the UX -> architecture -> tools sequence. When beginning the development of a product or epic, spikes should be used to design the UX and the architecture. And individual user stories should include enough details for the engineer to know what the UX for that story should be once it is fully implemented, and the engineer should also estimate enough points to cater for architectural planning to be done once work on that story begins.

Tools are great fun to research and to experiment with. Programmers love discovering new ones and finding “The Next Big Thing” in the framework jungle, and having lots of tools at your disposal is wonderful when the time comes to build a system that satisfies the UX and the architecture. Just don’t begin the entire design process with them. So remember: UX first, then architecture, then tools.

3 Signs of Narcissistic UI Design

User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX) design is hard, no doubt about it. Sadly, many software applications appear to have been built by narcissists, because they seem to assume that:

  • We enjoy being constantly interrupted by them
  • We love to repeatedly try out every feature available they have, including things we will never need
  • We believe it’s worth spending hours re-wiring our brains to deal with their unconventional design choices

How do you know if your application is just as vain? Here are 3 signs of design narcissism:

1. Being Too Noisy

Imagine you hired a babysitter who called you every few minutes during your night out to say:

“Hey, everything is OK! I’m still here and everything is fine! I’ll be calling back every 2 minutes whether you want me to or not! Bye!”

Nobody in their right mind would be happy with that kind of nuisance, but many software applications behave similarly. We somehow convince ourselves that it’s normal, and we put up with it. We even let it cause us some major embarrassment.

Applications with a singular purpose (for example, automatic backup programs) have historically been built by developers who felt they had to repeatedly show the value of that one feature to you. So every time they successfully performed their only important task, they would notify you. They would scream over emails and dialog boxes: “Hey I just backed up your files for the 3,716th straight hour!” That’s the narcissistic approach, and it assumes that the user wants to hear that noise on a regular basis.

And of course, no customer wants to hear it. There’s no value in telling users that nothing is wrong and that the application is working just fine. Instead, they want to hear about things that are not typical. They want to be told about events that require immediate attention.

For example:

Application Please Interrupt Me If…
Don’t Interrupt Me If…
Outlook I have an upcoming meeting There are new emails in my Inbox
Skype Someone is calling me One of my contacts has a birthday
Anti-Virus A virus was detected A routine scan was started
Web Browser I’m browsing a phishing site I can upgrade to a new version
Music Player Never, I’ll notice if the music stops Ever

DropBox is an application that is not narcissistic. It knows not to bother me, and I love that about it. It sits very quietly in my Mac’s status bar, its tiny logo remaining unobtrusive and its noise levels almost at zero.  When I save a file to my DropBox folder, it quite happily synchronizes it without requiring any clicks, acknowledgments or action on my part. When it’s finished, it doesn’t presume that I am waiting with bated breath for the final confirmation of success, so it stays quiet. If I really need some reassurance that it is healthy then I can make the choice to look for the “green tick” on the icon.

Microsoft has also been doing better with reducing interruptions recently. Their latest versions of Office have drastically reduced the number of annoying “informational” message boxes shown to the user, but they still have a few more to go.

A user’s attention should be considered valuable, and any software that tries to grab more of their brain’s time than it deserves will likely be quickly uninstalled.

2. Being Too Helpful

It’s impossible for every single feature in an application to also be the most important one for the user to select. However, most software gives every feature similar amounts of real estate on your screen, regardless of their relative importance. A good example of this is in Microsoft Excel’s toolbar (click the image to enlarge):

Excel Toolbar

It’s basically a “Where’s Waldo?” of features. Since I’m not a financial professional, I never use most of these features. It always takes me far too long to find the “Σ” symbol to sum up data, and that’s because it’s right next to icons for completely unrelated things like Copy, Paste and Undo.

The importance of different features changes over time for each user. Wouldn’t it be nice if an application were smart enough to hide icons from you if you hadn’t used them in a few months? I’d also love to see an application react to the way I use its features. For example, I always use keyboard commands to Copy and Paste, so I would love if my applications would automatically realize that and would just make those wasted icons disappear and give more room to the things I’m working on.

Many developers try to meet everyone’s needs partially but end up meeting no one’s completely. Users are usually faced with the results of design-by-committee interfaces that never seem to meet the needs of each individual. It’s like trying to order a meal at a restaurant that has far too many things on its menu from a waiter who never stops offering suggestions. Time and time again, customers must adapt to the application’s need to offer them every possible option all the time, when all they want is the same dinner they ordered the last twenty times. If you take all users across your install base, chances are every feature is used by someone. But that shouldn’t mean that every user needs to see every feature.

So, before any more Paperclip Assistants are conceived, let’s make sure the software world knows that their customers just want to get their work done, not to have vast numbers of irrelevant features presented to them on a never-ending basis.

3. Being Too Different

Narcissistic software developers will regularly assume that users will be happy to use an application that completely disregards UI design conventions and interaction guidelines. This is usually done to make an application really “stand out,” but in reality the developer’s vanity often makes their application unusable.

There are plenty of examples of terrible user interfaces to be found. One thing they all share is a complete disregard for consistency with established standards. Making a user re-learn how to perform basic operations would normally be a recipe for the application’s total failure in the marketplace, but some lucky products lack any competition, leaving the user no alternative. For example, most of the peripheral hardware devices that I’ve purchased over the years (sound cards, printers, etc) came with proprietary software that look like they were designed as an April Fool’s prank (click the image to enlarge):

overclocker

Developers should have the humility to respect established UI and UX standards unless they can truly show significant value by breaking the mold. But be prepared for an initial backlash if you don’t manage that change well enough.

So, to every software developer out there: remember, if there’s anyone who has a right to be a narcissist when it comes to UI design, it’s not you, but rather the user.

The Web APIs You Use Will Fail

If you’ve built an application that calls any kind of remote Web API – be it based on SOAP, REST/HTTP, Thrift, JSON-RPC or otherwise – your code must absolutely expect it to fail. Expecting your remote API calls to always work is a recipe for a late-night call to your phone during a future system disaster. As Steve Vinoski correctly states, the “illusion of RPC” runs deep in the programming world, and engineers who treat remote Web API calls the same way as local function calls do so at their peril.

Here are some of the many ways that a call to a distributed system can fail. It’s not an exhaustive list by any means, but it’s a start.

Failures of Infrastructure

These are the most basic of failures, usually experienced at the network level.

DNS Lookup Failures

The GoDaddy failure of August 2012 caused millions of DNS names to be unreachable. It’s likely that your application code expects healthy, speedy conversion of domain names to IP addresses, but if DNS doesn’t respond then it won’t get past even the first hurdle.

Lack of Network Access

Skilled mobile developers assume that their code will communicate over a cellular network that may not be always available, and handle its intermittent nature gracefully. How many developers assume the same unreliability when creating an application intended for deployment within a data center? Routers, cables, switches and power supplies fail all the time, and a failure of any of those devices could leave your system without the ability to reach the outside world right when you need it most.

Loss of Data Center

Amazon’s popular and affordable AWS services are used by a significant number of SaaS providers. Their EC2 uptime guarantee of 99.95% entices many developers to build Web APIs to be hosted within it. While that SLA sounds good, the 2011 failure of Amazon’s US-East availability zone showed the technology world what happens when during the 0.05% period. A vast majority of the systems hosted there were completely unreachable during that time, causing a major disruption for many. Importantly, those that followed Amazon’s advice to build redundancy across availability zones (such as Netflix) were able to handle the outage without interruption.

SSL Certificate Issues

SSL certificates are the backbone of secure web communications, but they can be the cause of a lot of frustration. If a server’s domain name changes and the certificate presented by it doesn’t match, the SSL handshake will fail (with good reason).

Should a certificate on either side expire, the SSL handshake will fail too. Web server administrators usually do a good job of preventing server-side certificate expiration, but client-side certificates – while required much less frequently – are sometimes deployed by users who are not very tech-savvy and who don’t keep track of when they expire.

Failures in Communication

Even if your application has basic network connectivity, a variety of errors can still be experienced as it tries to communicate with the target Web API.

Timeouts

A web service that is experiencing greater than peak load might take many seconds (or worse, minutes) to respond to your call. A query resulting in a huge amount of data retrieval and analysis might take just as long to process even on a lightly loaded server. Both of these scenarios could lead to your client giving up and throwing a timeout error when it fails to receive a response. Even if your client call is configured to never time out, a firewall in between your application and the server might decide to kill your connection if it looks idle for so long.

Origin Restrictions

If you’re building a browser-based application and expect all your Ajax calls to reach your server, you’re in for a surprise if you ever break one of the same-origin rules as an attempt to make a call to another endpoint will be blocked by almost all browsers. Even changing something as innocuous as the TCP port number in your URL could prevent your call from working, so make sure you only make Ajax calls to your origin web server.

Syntax Errors

Products that implement older middleware technologies such as SOAP, CORBA and DCOM provide stubs that take care of encoding the entire payload for you, as well as transmitting it to the server and decoding any response. However using newer architectural approaches like REST can mean that the management of the media types and payload formats will be left to the application programmer. While offering great flexibility, that approach does place a bigger burden on the client developer to ensure that it transmits and understands data in the form the server expects.

Redirections

A number of RESTful Web APIs use a redirection technique to instruct the client to resend their original request to another URI, and the HTTP standard offers response codes like 301 and 302 for that purpose. But if your client code hasn’t been built using a library that handles them automatically then you’ll have to add redirection logic for all API calls to prevent surprises when 300-range response codes are returned. And when you’re working with well-designed RESTful APIs, you should expect them to be returned.

Credential Expiration

Almost all OAuth tokens and server-side account passwords expire after a limited lifetime. It can be easy to forget this fact when you are in the heat of rolling out your application to production, so make sure that you mark your calendar ahead of their expiration dates, and that you build behaviors into your application to handle a credential failure if it occurs (perhaps by raising a system alert or emailing your IT team).

Unexpected International Content

If your application makes any assumption that the server will always send back ASCII or ISO-Latin-1 characters, you be in for a rough day when the server sends back Unicode content and your code has no idea how to decode it. Using data formats that natively support encodings like UTF-8 (for example, XML and JSON) should help somewhat but it doesn’t mean that all your work is done. You’ll still have to handle multi-byte characters and store or render them appropriately.

Proxy Servers Getting in the Way

Using a hotel or airplane’s Wi-Fi connection can cause some really interesting behavior for your application. Most pay-to-surf hotspots use an HTTP proxy server to intercept web traffic and ensure that payment is made, but sometimes those proxies do more than just ask for your money. I’ve seen some proxy servers force all HTTP 1.1 traffic down to version 1.0, causing difficulties for applications that relied on features in the 1.1 protocol. Thankfully, most invasive HTTP proxy server behavior can be bypassed by moving to HTTPS (because proxies can’t decrypt that kind of traffic between client browsers and the server as long as the server uses a properly-signed certificate).

Enormous responses

Most web services do a good job of truncating huge query result sets before transmitting them to the caller, but some do not. If you accidentally run an enormous query on the server side, it might cause a failure for your client application. Receiving a huge amount of data requires at least as much memory to store it, and (depending on the quality of the parser) might even need to be temporarily duplicated in memory in order to parse it. Make sure that you use any pagination or truncation features available in your API to prevent your application from being slammed with a gigantic result set. If those kinds of features are not available, try to craft your queries to prevent enormous responses.

Failures in Conversation

Even if your application successfully communicates with a web service API at first, failures can still occur after that point.

Throttling

This is one of the most common reasons for web service API failure. If you hit an API hard enough – even one that you’re paying for – you might discover that the vendor offering it has just cut you off. Of course, this could very well happen to your system at the worst possible moment. Some APIs have no traffic limit when they’re first released but apply them later (something Twitter API developers realized recently, much to their surprise and disappointment).

Keep in mind too that an orchestrated DDOS attack on your system (or even an innocuous load test of your own) could lead to you quickly reaching an unexpected limit with the Web APIs your application depends on.

Time Differences

February 29th. Daylight Saving Time. The International Date Line. The Leap Second. Time zones with partial-hour offsets. Even if you believe your application isn’t time-sensitive, any of these temporal oddities could affect the results you get from the Web APIs you are calling. Testing for them ahead of time might be difficult, but it could be time well spent.

Subscription Expiration

When you sign up for an API on the Web, make sure you set your calendar to remind you ahead of the renewal date. Forgetting to renew an API account subscription will leave egg on your face – and nasty errors on the screens of your users.

The API Disappears

It’s rare, but it happens: vendors pull their API out of your market area, or they go out of business completely and shut down their services without notice. Either way the net effect is the same, and you’ll have to quickly scramble to find an alternative service.

Unexpected Payload Format

Yahoo! recently made an unannounced incompatible upgrade to their popular Placefinder API, moving it from version 1.0 to 2.0 overnight. Normally a move like that would be orchestrated in such a way to provide both old and new API versions side-by-side, but the company offered users no way to keep using the older 1.0 data format while they made the switch.

Instead, their API users woke up one day to find that Yahoo! had completely broken their applications, and the only options on the table were to either quickly move to the 2.0 format or to switch to a different service. Worse still, some users quickly made the switch to 2.0, only for Yahoo! to realize their mistake two days later and switch the API back to 1.0 – two incompatible changes in as many days.

If vendors as large as Yahoo! can make accidental incompatible changes to their API services, you have to assume that all vendors could do the same.

What You Can Do

While there are innumerable ways for Web API calls to fail, protecting your application against problems with them can be done by following a few simple guidelines:

Assume that every Web API call you make will fail. Always check that you get a response (and do so within a reasonable timeframe) and that you parse the returned payload carefully. Code very defensively when calling what are essentially unreliable functions. Build monitoring and instrumentation into your system so that your IT team gets called when remote APIs stop responding. And if you’re really confident, inject failure into your production system.

Know what your users will experience when a Web API fails. For core services that you are completely dependent on (for example, PayPal for payment processing) make sure that you fail gracefully and tell the user something useful instead of just throwing a stack trace on the screen. For secondary services (for example, Google Maps for showing store locations) consider having an alternative service available that you can fall back to, especially if you hit a traffic ceiling with your main API provider due to high traffic.

Simulate the failure of each Web API you depend upon. Testing for failure is by far the best way to defend against future surprises. If you can do it in an automatic fashion then all the better, but simply changing your hosts file to make the hostname of your remote Web APIs fail to resolve to a usable IP address will probably uncover a ton of issues that you might not have expected.

Web APIs are great, and developers love mashing them up into something exciting. But if you don’t plan for the failure of those APIs, you’ll just end up frustrating your users and driving them away from your product.

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